Introduction to International Negotiation and Communication
AbstractInternational negotiation and communication contri bute to the improvement of international relations. Negotiation between states and also other subjects of international relations is one of basic forms of its function. First of all, it is necessary to characterize negotiation as a phenomenon and also its key elements. It is possible to start with the definition of elementary words in this field such as communication, negotiation, and diplomacy, and also its mutual connections. Next step is a characteristic of several basic variables, which we can see in all negotiations without respect to when, where, and on which theme the negotiation is occuring - information, time and power. Negotiation is also characterized as a process with its phases and dynamics. Basic phases are analysis of subject, planning of possible solutions and discussion - it means full negotiation. Elementary styles of negotiation are also part of this characteristic. Two key categories represent positional and principal negotiation. Cultural aspects of negotiation, especially in international relations are another important part. These aspects arise from definition of culture, cultural dimension of international relations, also intercultural communication and necessity of its understanding. Values paradigm (system of basic values) and characteristics of different cultures also play a very important part. These values co-operate on the creation of different approaches of these cultures, members to negotiation, and the use of different styles. Crucial are in this sense e.g. using of language or time and also one of the basic classifications on individualistic and interdependent ethoses, with low-context or high-context negotiation style. In the context of international negotiation it is possible to come up different variants of negotiation. There are, first of all, bilateral or multilateral negotiation or mediation and good offices and, of course, inquiry, conciliation, arbitration and jurisdictional disputes. Examined are many elements e.g. style, strategy (used during negotiation), selection of group of participants, formulation of agenda, venue of negotiation, proceedings, decision-making and many other questions in these styles. It is necessary to mention that in current international practice negotiation is one of the main legitimate methods of resolving conflicts, and above all preventing of such conflicts
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