Is the European Union an Energy Actor in Relations with Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries?
The main aim of the article is to analyze the EU energy relations with several current (Angola, Gabon and Nigeria) and potential energy suppliers (Mozambique, Tanzania and Kenya) in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2007-2017, with an emphasis on the potential for energy security enhancement. The purpose of the article is to find out if the EU is perceived in Sub-Saharan Africa as an indispensable actor of the international energy relations, or whether these energy relations are still the domain of individual EU Member States. At the same time, the article further analyzes the goals, interests and tools that the EU is pursuing and using in its energy policy towards Sub-Saharan Africa. The article uses the concept of a modified form of the EU's external energy actorness based on three criteria: (1) the perception of the actor by a third party, (2) the policy goals and interests, and (3) the resources and policy tools.
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