The Governance of Non-State Armed Actors in Failing States: The Case of Hezbollah

  • Jan Daniel
Keywords: non-state governance, security governance, non-state armed actors, territorial authority, failing state, Hezbollah, Lebanon


Using the case of the Lebanese movement Hezbollah, the article deals with the phenomenon of the governance of non-state armed groups in failing states and the conditions for its emergence. It argues that one of the key requirements for the emergence and long-term preservation of a non-state armed group’s authority is its fulfillment of functions usually associated with the state (such as the provision of security, public goods and services and the legitimation of its authority) that the failing state is not able to provide. The study specifically shows how Hezbollah is able to substitute for or complement the Lebanese state in each of its functions and consecutively use the wide network of its governance institutions for strengthening its political authority. As a result of Hezbollah’s practices and strategies of governance, the forms of political control of the territory are being gradually changed and hybridized.

Author Biography

Jan Daniel

Born in 1987, he is a PhD candidate at the Department of International Relations of the Institute of Political Studies at the Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University in Prague. He completed a master's degree in International Relations at the Faculty of Social Studies at Masaryk University in Brno and a bachelor’s degree in International Relations and Security Studies, also at Masaryk University. Academically he focuses on armed non-state actors, hybrid security regimes, the Middle East, international political sociology and critical theory of security. During his studies, he completed internships and study abroad programmes in Berlin, Beirut and Bologna.